Showing posts from January 3, 2018

Change Orders in Construction Contracts – Types, Features and Components

What is change order and why it is needed in construction contract? A change order in construction contract is modification of a contract in writing. It is a change to the original contract that has been previously established and previously written. Many times, a construction project requires some changes such as addition, deletion or modification of works, or can be changes in local laws related to construction works. These changes can be done by owners, contractors, architects, designers etc. at a later date after signing of the construction contract. These changes are incorporated in construction contracts through a written change orders. A construction contract includes drawings, specifications, bill of quantities, clarifications and this is for any type of construction or of a building project. Any changes in these are notified to contractor with a change order. Common Types of Change Order in Construction Contracts Following are the common types of change orders and

classifications and Causes of Movements in Masonry Buildings

Movements in masonry buildings are deformations caused to it due to various reasons. Types and causes of such movements in masonry buildings is discussed. There are different factors for example, temperature variations and changes in moisture content, that lead to generate or create deformations in masonry structures. These movements must be considered to prevent their detrimental influence on the masonry buildings. Substantial stresses might be generated due to restriction of masonry members by interconnection with those masonry elements which have different movement. Movement restriction of masonry, which is a brittle material, induces fracture and develops cracks through which water can penetrate and might damage the building fabrics. Remedial techniques are bothersome and costly most of the time, so taking movements of masonry structures into considerations at design stages is extremely significant. Types and Causes of Movements in Masonry Buildings Following are the

Construction Measures & Materials to Reduce Deflection of Concrete Beams and Slabs

deflections of concrete beams and slabs are affected by construction measures and materials used. In most situations, size of the reinforced concrete sections is controlled by deflections. To achieve more economical sections, certain measures can be employed includes construction techniques and material selection techniques. In this article construction and material selection measures which can be used to reduce concrete beam and slab deflection are explored in the following sections. 1. Construction Measures to Reduce Deflection of Beams and Slabs Cure the concrete to allow it achieve strength It is claimed that the deflection response of concrete members are specified by concrete strength at initial loading rather than final strength of concrete elements. It is recommended to use concrete that obtain high strength at early stages when constructed members are to be loaded in no time after construction. Additionally, the deflection of cracked members is much higher than th