A project Report On Water Pollution

A SeminarReportOn


Waterpollution is amajor global problem which requires ongoingevaluation and revision of waterresourcepolicyatalllevels (international down to individual aquifers andwells).It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that itaccounts forthe deaths of morethan 14,000people daily.

An estimated 580 peopleinIndia dieof water pollution related illness everyday.Around 90%
the waterin thecities ofChina is polluted, and as of 2007, half abillion Chinesehad no access to safedrinkingwater.Inaddition to the acute problems of waterpollution indeveloping countries, developed countries alsocontinueto strugglewith pollution problems.

For example, in themostrecent national report onwaterqualityin theUnited States, 45 percent of assessed stream miles, 47% of assessed lakeacres, and32 percent ofassessed baysand estuarine squaremiles wereclassified as polluted.Thehead of China's national development agencysaid in 2007 thatonequarter thelength ofChina's seven main rivers wereso poisonedthe waterharmed the skin.

Wateris typicallyreferred to as polluted when itis impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support ahuman use, such asdrinkingwater, or undergoesamarked shift in its abilityto support its constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomenasuchas volcanoes, algaeblooms, storms, and earthquakesalso cause majorchangesin waterqualityand the ecological status of water.


Waterpollutionis anychemical, physical or biological changein thequalityofwaterthat has a harmful effect onanylivingthingthat drinks or uses or lives (in) it. When humans drinkpolluted wateritoften has seriouseffects on theirhealth.Waterpollutioncan also makewater unsuited
forthe desired use.


Although interrelated, surfacewater andgroundwaterhaveoften been studied and managed as separate resources. Surfacewater seeps through the soil and becomesgroundwater. Conversely, groundwatercanalso feed surfacewater sources.Sources of surfacewaterpollution are generallygrouped into two categories based on their origin.

Point sources

Pointsourcewaterpollutionrefers tocontaminants that enter awaterwayfrom a single, identifiable source, suchas a pipe orditch. Examples of sources in this categoryinclude discharges from asewagetreatmentplant, afactory, or acitystorm drain.TheU.S.Clean Water Act (CWA)defines pointsource forregulatoryenforcement purposes.TheCWA definition of pointsourcewasamended in 1987 to includemunicipal storm sewer systems, as wellas industrial storm water, such as from construction sites.

Nonpoint sources

Nonpoint sourcepollution refers to diffusecontamination that does not originatefrom asingle discrete source. NPSpollution is often the cumulative effectofsmall amounts of contaminantsgatheredfrom a largearea.

A common exampleis theleachingout ofnitrogencompounds from fertilized agricultural lands. Nutrient runoffin stormwater from "sheet flow" over an agricultural fiedora forest arealso cited as examples of NPSpollution.

Contaminated storm waterwashed offofparking lots, roads and highways,calledurbanrunoff, is sometimes includedunder thecategoryofNPSpollution. However, because this runoff is typicallychanneled intostorm drain systems anddischarged through pipesto local surface waters, itbecomes a point source.


Interactions betweengroundwater and surfacewater are complex. Consequently,groundwater pollution, sometimes referred to asgroundwater contamination, is notas easilyclassifiedas surfacewater pollution.

Byits verynature,groundwateraquifersaresusceptible to contamination from sources that may not directlyaffect surfacewaterbodies, andthe distinction ofpointvs. non-pointsourcemaybe irrelevant.

A spill or ongoingreleaseof chemical orradionuclide contaminants into soil(located awayfrom asurfacewaterbody) maynot create point or non-pointsourcepollution but can contaminatethe aquifer below, creatingatoxicplume.

Themovement of the plume, called aplumefront,maybe analyzed through a hydrological transport model orgroundwatermodel. Analysisof groundwater contamination mayfocus on soilcharacteristics andsite geology,hydrogeology,hydrology,and the natureof the contaminants.


Water pollution is usuallycausedbyhumanactivities. Different human sources addto the pollution ofwater. Therearetwo sorts of sources,pointand nonpointsources. Pointsources dischargepollutants at specific locations through pipelines orsewers intothe surfacewater. Nonpoint sources aresources that cannot be tracedto a single site ofdischarge.

Examples of point sources are: factories, sewagetreatment plants, underground mines, oil wells, oiltankers and agriculture.

Examples of nonpoint sources are: acid deposition from the air, traffic, pollutants that arespread through rivers and pollutants that enter thewaterthroughgroundwater.
Nonpoint pollution is hard to control becausetheperpetrators cannot betraced.

Common causes of water pollution

        Sewage andwastewater:Out ofsight, outofmind?Surfers willtellyouthatsewagecontains all kinds of horrific nasties,fromsanitaryproducts,condoms, paper, andplastics, to bacteriaand virusesthat canmake youextremelyill.
        Soaps andwashingdetergents:Phosphatesindetergentscanfertilizeriversandseas,causing algal bloomsthat useupoxygen andkill fish life.
Oil poured downthe drain:Youmightthinkoil tankersmakethemostoil pollution, butquitea
lotofoil enterswatersimplybybeingtipped (orwashing)down thedrain.
        Invasivespecies:Often carried aroundtheworldbyships, theysuddenlyappear inrivers, lakes, andseaswheretheyhave nopredators, quicklywipingouttheir naturalrivals.
        Atmosphericdeposition: This is air pollutionthat returns toEarth as landandwater pollution, includingacid rainthatfallsintooceans, rivers,andseas, chemical dischargesfromchimneys (smokestacks), andflyash fromwasteincinerators.
        Highwayandstreetrunoff:Cars obviouslywearoutastheydrivedown roads—butit's less obvious thattheywearoutandleavetoxicresiduesontheroads themselves. Heavystorms wash poisonedsludge offroads intosurroundinglandwhereitdrains intoriversor groundwater.
        Agriculturalrunoff:Fertilizers,weedkillers,andotherfarmchemicalswash intoriversand groundwater,causingalgalblooms andpotentiallycontaminatingdrinkingwater.
Litter:Plasticbottlesandbags canlastupto 500yearsin theenvironment withoutbiodegrading
(breakingdown naturally).If you'veeverdonea beachcleanandstudied thewasteyoucollect, youwillhavenoticedthatthe vastmajorityofitissmall, randombitsof plastic.
        Oil production:Mostoil isproducedoffshoreandtransported byships, soit's nosurprisethat the oilindustryisabigpolluter. Despitethehugemedia attentiontheygain, tankeraccidents accountforonlyabout10 percentofthe totalamount ofoilthatenterstheoceans. Unfortunately,theyoftencreatea hugeamount ofpollutioninoneplace,overwhelmingthe localecosystem.
        Shippollution:Several decadesafterimportantinternational agreements tostopmarine pollutionweresigned,oil leakageandwastedisposalfromships (includingcruiseships, warships, andtankers)remains asignificantcauseofocean pollution.

Waterpollution solutions

        Understandingcauses:If wedon'tunderstandwhypollutionhappens, howcan wehope tostop it?Weneed to knowwhetherpollutionispointsource ornonpointsourceandwhat causesit ineachcase.
        Legislation:Therearemanydifferentanti-pollutionlawsandagreementsinoperationin the United States,Europe,andworldwide. ExamplesincludetheUSCleanWater Act,theEU Bathing WaterDirective, andtheMARPOLInternational Conventionfor thePreventionofPollutionfrom Ships.
Regulation:Sometimespollutionseems unavoidable:frompapermakingtooil refining, many
industrial processescreate pollutionas abyproduct.Butinsteadof acceptingthatasa fact,we canregulatefactoriesandallowthemtoemitor discharge onlylimited amountsof carefully controlled pollutants. Byslowlyreducingthelevelsofpermitteddischarges,yearbyyear and decadebydecade, wecangraduallybringpollution undercontrol.
Effectiveenforcement:Laws andregulations are worthnothingunlesswe'reprepared to
enforcethemandpunishoffenderswith finesor jailsentences. This ispartof anidea known as thepolluterpays principle,which means peoplewhoproducepollutionshouldhavetopay the coststheyinflictonsociety.
        Publicawareness: Themorepeople knowaboutthecausesandeffectsofpollution, themore likelythey'regoingtobetoavoidaddingtotheproblem. Communityactionto tacklepollution, suchasvoluntarycleanupsof riversandbeaches,isveryimportant.
Education:If weteach schoolchildren thatpollutionisa problem, perhaps wecanavoidturning
        Political pressure:If wewanttocreatelawsandregulationsthateffectively tacklepollution, againstthewishesof powerful companies,we'regoingtoneedordinarypeople toapply considerablepressure to their electedpoliticalrepresentatives. That'swherecampaigning groups andactivistscanplayan important role.
        Cooperation:It'seasytopointfingersandblame"greedycorporations"forpollutingtheplanet, butweallhavea shareof theresponsibilityfor pollution:ifyoudrivea car, travelbybus,or buy anygoods thathavebeen transported,youuseoil,directlyorindirectly, andyou'repartly to blameforoil spillagesin theocean.
Science:Understandinghowpollutiontravels andpersistsintheenvironmentcanplayan
important partin publicawareness,education, andapplyingpolitical pressure. Goodsciencecan informpolicyandlegislationandempowercampaigners, butsciencealonerarelymakesmuch difference.
        Technology: Theremaybesuperb technologicalwaysof cleaning-uppollutionwehaven'tyet discovered;similarly,theremaybewaysof avoidingpollution(forexample,byswitchingfrom gasoline-powered carsto electricones toreduceour dependenceonoil).


There aremanytypes ofwaterpollution becausewater comes from manysources. Here are a few types ofwater pollution:


Some wastewater, fertilizers and sewagecontain high levels of nutrients.Iftheyend up in waterbodies, theyencourage algae andweedgrowth in thewater. This willmakethe waterundrinkable, andeven clogfilters. Too much algaewillalso useup alltheoxygen
in thewater, and other waterorganisms in thewaterwilldie out ofoxygenstarvation.


Surfacewaterincludes natural water found on theearth's surface, like rivers, lakes, lagoons and oceans. Hazardous substancescominginto contact with this surfacewater, dissolvingor mixingphysicallywith thewatercanbe called surfacewater pollution.

Oxygen Depleting

Waterbodies havemicro-organisms. Theseinclude aerobic and anaerobicorganisms. When tomuch biodegradable matter (things that easilydecay)end up in water, it encourages moremicroorganismgrowth,and theyuse up moreoxygen in thewater.If oxygen is depleted, aerobic organisms die, and anaerobicorganismgrow moreto produce harmful toxins such as ammoniaandsulfides.


When humans applypesticides and chemicals to soils, theyarewashed deep into the groundbyrain water. This gets to underground water, causingpollution underground.

This means when wedig wells andboreholes togetwaterfrom underground, itneeds to be checked forgroundwaterpollution.


In manycommunities in theworld, peopledrink untreated water (straight from a riveror stream). Sometimes thereis natural pollution causedbymicro-organisms likeviruses,

bacteriaand protozoa. This natural pollution can cause fishes and other waterlifeto die. Theycanalso cause serious illness to humans who drink from such waters.


Some pollutants (substances, particles and chemicals) do noteasilydissolvein water. This kind ofmaterial is called particulate matter. Some suspended pollutants latersettle under thewater body. This can harm andeven killaquaticlifethat live at the floor of waterbodies.

Chemical WaterPollution

Manyindustriesand farmers work with chemicals that endup in water. This is common with Point-sourcePollution.Theseincludechemicals that areusedtocontrol weeds, insects and pests. Metalsand solvents from industries can pollute water bodies. Theseare poisonous to manyformsof aquaticlife and mayslow theirdevelopment,makethem infertile and kill them.

Oil Spillage

Oil spills usuallyhaveonlyalocalized effect on wildlifebut can spreadformiles. Theoil can cause thedeath to manyfish andget stuck tothe feathers ofseabirds causingthem to lose their abilityto fly.


Waterpollution is bad and it’s not good forpeopleto drink thewaterthatspolluted and for all
organisms that need water to survive.

There aremillions of people that don’t havegoodclean access to waterandthat theyeven have to drink thebad polluted water for them it survive,Sewagecan cause waterpollution alongwith the toxic chemicals from Industrial business.

There are abunch ofwater pollutions like toxic and organic and thermal water. And solutions to stop thewaterpollution areto clean up thegarbage and keepyouryard clean.

To tryto stop the water pollution clean upyouryard and makesurethereis no garbageleft anywhere aroundin the areayou livelikethe streets and neighborhood.




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